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How Munich switched 15,000 PCs from Windows to Linux

How Munich switched 15,000 PCs from Windows to Linux

Munich city council has migrated 15,000 workers from Windows to Linux. It’s a great success story for Free Software, and it upset Microsoft enormously. We visited the city and talked to Peter Hofmann, the man behind the migration – so read on for all the juicy details about what went right, what went wrong, and what made Steve Ballmer sweat…

Note! This article originally appeared in issue 2 of Linux Voice. We’re making it freely available under the terms of the Creative Commons for everyone to share. (Here is the PDF from the magazine.) We’d like to start a campaign to get more city councils and local governments to switch to Linux, so please send the PDF (or a link) to your councillors, show them how Linux can save them money and make them more secure, and let us know how you get on!

Update 18 Aug: a version in French

Hirschgarten, in the west of Munich, is one of Europe’s biggest beer gardens, with over 8,000 places to sit. It’s a spectacular sight in summer: hundreds of benches as far as the eye can see, trees providing some shelter from the heat, and a vast number of people relaxing and enjoying the city’s famous beers.

But while 8,000 is an impressive number, it’s not as impressive as 15,000. That’s how many people the Munich city council has switched from Windows to Linux over the last decade. Migrating workers of Germany’s third-largest city was no easy task and there were plenty of hurdles along the way, but by and large the project has been a storming success.

We’ve been following the progress of LiMux (Linux in Munich) for years, and now that the project is effectively complete, we decided to visit the city and talk to the man in charge of it. Read on to discover how it all started, how Microsoft tried to torpedo it, and whether other cities in the world can follow Munich’s lead…

Humble beginnings

Cast your mind back to 2001, and the state of Linux at the time. It was well established as a server OS and fairly well known among computing hobbyists, but still a small fish in the desktop pond. Gnome and KDE were still young whippersnappers, while hardware detection needed improvements and top-quality desktop applications were lacking in many areas.

Peter Hofmann is the leader of the LiMux project, and explained
its ups-and-downs from his office overlooking the Frauenkirche.

So for an entire city council to even consider moving to a largely unknown platform was a major event. Still, it happened gradually, as Peter Hoffman, the project leader for LiMux, told us in his office:

One of the biggest aims
of LiMux was to make the
city more independent.

“Back in 2001, a member of the Munich city council asked: are there any alternatives to using Microsoft software? And based on that question, we put out a tender for a study, which compared five platform options. One was purely Microsoft-based, one was Windows with OpenOffice, one was Linux with OpenOffice, and so forth.”

As the study progressed, two main options emerged as choices for the council: remaining with a purely Microsoft solution, which would involve upgrading existing Windows NT and 2000 systems to XP; and moving to a purely Linux and open source alternative. “If you lay more emphasis on the monetary side, the pure Microsoft alternative would have won, or if you lay the emphasis on the strategic side, the open source alternative was better.”

Doing the maths

That was interesting enough – that staying with Microsoft would have been cheaper. Given the cost of buying licences for Windows and Office, you’d think that sticking with Microsoft would’ve cost far more than switching to Linux. However, the calculations were based on a five-year period, so they mostly covered migration costs (staff, technical support, retraining users etc.) rather than operational costs (buying new hardware, licence fees and so forth). But how did the LiMux team determine that Linux was a better choice strategically?

“With the Linux alternative, we saw that it would be possible to implement the security guidelines we wanted to have. At the time there was a lot of discussion about Windows 2000 and the calling home functionality. If you asked Microsoft at that time, ‘which one of your programs are calling home?’, they said ‘err, yeah, maybe some, or not’. So we didn’t get a clear answer at that time, and we thought there would be a great advantage from a security perspective to using Linux.”

One of the biggest aims of LiMux was to make the city more independent. Germany’s major centre-left political party is the SPD, and its local Munich politicians backed the idea of the city council switching to Linux. They wanted to promote small and medium-sized companies in the area, giving them funding to improve the city’s IT infrastructure, instead of sending the money overseas to a large American corporation. The SPD argued that moving to Linux would foster the local IT market, as the city would pay localcompanies to do the work.

This chart shows the migration path in 2012: from 9,000 desktops at the start of the year to 14,000 by the end.

Ballmer marches in

In May 2003, the city council was due to vote on whether to make the big switch to Linux. But Microsoft didn’t stand still: Steve Ballmer, the infamously loud CEO, flew over to speak with Munich’s mayor, Christian Ude. But this had an adverse effect, as Peter explains:

“Steve Ballmer tried to convince our mayor that it would be a bad decision to switch to open source, because it’s not something an administration can rely on. But some members of the city council said: what are we, if one member of a big company simply comes here, and he thinks he can just switch our opinions?”

And it just got worse for Microsoft’s boss. “Our mayor was preparing for a meeting with Steve Ballmer, and because English is not his native language, he asked his interpreter: ‘What shall I say if I don’t have the right words?’ And the interpreter replied: ‘Stay calm, think and say: What else can you offer?’ Later on during the meeting, our mayor was quickly at the point where he had nothing to say to Ballmer, except for ‘What else can you offer?’ several times. Years later, he heard that Ballmer was deeply impressed by how hard he was in negotiations!”

Alea Jacta Est

So Steve Ballmer flew back to Microsoft HQ, the Munich city council voted, and it voted in favour of Linux. History had been made. GNU/Linux and Free Software users around the world were pleasantly surprised by the decision – especially as it had been made in Munich and Bavaria, one of the more conservative areas of Europe. Something big was going to happen, but it needed time to take root, as Peter explains:

“We could not to start the migration next day, but wanted to do a proof of concept first. In 2004, we started to take preliminary steps for the migration, and one of them was to put out a tender for a Linux-based solution. Ten companies approached us trying to sell their solutions, and a consortium of two small companies, Gonicus and Softcon, won the tender with a solution based on Debian.”

GNU/Linux and Free Software
users around the world were
pleasantly surprised by the decision

Gonicus provided consultants, and the city council recruited new technicians – eventually there was a team of 13 working on the LiMux project. They started creating a custom version of Debian and by 2006 the roll-out was beginning. But the choice of Debian caused them some minor headaches further down the line:

“In 2008 we saw that Debian was clearly stable, a good thing, but not the best if you want to use new hardware. They are always a few years behind. We also wanted to have a clear timetable for when new versions would be available. In Debian, when it’s ready it’s ready, so you can’t base a release plan on it. Those two things were the basis for switching from Debian to Kubuntu.”

What is the LiMux client?

Put simply, it’s a customised version of Kubuntu. We had a chance to explore it in Peter’s office, and it’s very much what you’d expect from an older Kubuntu release: a Start menu in the bottom-left, various office and productivity applications installed, and a generic theme. There’s a bit of LiMux theming in the wallpaper, but otherwise it looks rather plain. A new version of the LiMux Client is due this year; it will be based on Kubuntu 12.04, an LTS (Long-Term Support) release. With this, LiMux users across the city will make the transition to KDE 4, and experience something rather more polished than the KDE 3 desktop they’ve been used to.

From Debian to Kubuntu

Another reason for using Kubuntu was the KDE desktop. It was clear to the LiMux team that some users would fight back against the change – especially if they regarded the current system as good enough, and the new one as something forced on them by politicians. So KDE was chosen as it could provide an interface very similar to that of Windows NT and 2000, as used by the various departments of the city at the time. How did people respond?

“There are different levels of users. Some would say: ‘This button was green before, and it isn’t green now, so I cannot work like this!’ And the others say: ‘Just give me something, I have to work, and I’ll get used to it’. We had that kind of range of users, but most were the first type.”

Peter and his team worked to ease the migration process by organising meetings and roadshows around the city where people could come and see Linux in action. They had Q&A sessions and even a Microsoft-free zone set up with Linux computers to play with. The goal was that users would get a preview of what they’d be using a year or two down the line.

“Some people came to us and said: ‘Can I use a mouse? I thought Linux was only command line based’. One person came with a floppy disk and said ‘My most important documents are on this. Is it still possible to work with them?’ So we showed that it was possible to open them on Linux. We were always trying to give information to the users: what was happening, and why it was happening.”

While LiMux was the central project in charge of the operating system, the roll-out and migration was handled by individual departments. There was no specific deadline: departments would choose by themselves when to handle the transition, and the LiMux team would provide the technical know-how to perform the migration.

Yes, there are cuddly penguins in the LiMux office. All is good in the world.

Not every public sector employee moved to Linux though. Education was one area in which LiMux couldn’t get involved, because the decisions about educational software are made at a national level in Germany. In addition, a few systems with very esoteric requirements are still running Windows, although Peter tried Wine:

“We have a very limited Wine installation, because there’s always the need to save the configuration of Wine together with the application. They’re deeply dependent. If you change the version of Wine, you have to do something with the application, and vice-versa. We saw that we’d have to use 10 or 15 different configurations of Wine on the same machine in some cases.”

Even when the transition had
gone well for one department, the
requirements of the next one were
often completely different.

Some software vendors won’t support their programs if they’re running on Wine rather than a native Windows installation, so in the end the LiMux team only deployed two Wine installations.

While the LiMux version of Kubuntu was fairly standardised across the different departments in the city, it took a lot of work to provide the same functionality as the myriad Windows setups previously out there. Peter and his team counted over 50 different configurations of Windows in use, so even when the transition had gone well for one department, the requirements of the next one were often completely different.

Today, the IT infrastructure is a lot more centralised, with the LiMux developers issuing new releases and giving support. It’s much easier to fix problems and help people when you have roughly the same operating system on each PC, rather than non-standard custom setups with different service packs, patches and so forth.

Money talks

While the initial aim of the project wasn’t to save money, it’s still what a lot of people talk about. Today, over a decade down the line, has LiMux been a good idea in terms of finances?

“Yes, it has, depending on the calculation. We did a calculation and we made it publicly available on our information system for the city council. We have the exact same parameters for staying with Windows as with the migration to the Linux platform. Based on those parameters, Linux has saved us €10m.”

LiMux has been a success,
and has shown how flexible
and effective Free Software is.

A respectable sum indeed – but some companies weren’t happy with it. HP compiled a study which concluded that no, actually, switching to Linux had cost the city €60m. Had Munich stayed with Microsoft’s products and moved to Windows XP and Office 2003, it would only have cost €17m. So what did Peter and his team make of this?

“We contacted HP and said: ‘Nice numbers, how did you calculate them’? And they said ‘Uh, um, that was an internal paper and not supposed to be published…’ They published a summary, but it was not clear for anyone to see how they calculated.”

As a major partner of Microsoft, it’s not surprising that HP would try to put a different spin on the project. But the proof is in the pudding: LiMux has been a success, has shown how flexible and effective free software is, and will hopefully inspire many other cities to follow its lead in the future.

Who’s next?

Surprisingly, the success of LiMux hasn’t resulted in a flood of similar projects across Europe, although we all know how slow things move in politics. Peter has been talking to other administrations around Germany – but whether anything will come from them remains to be seen. A similar project, Wienux, aimed to move the city of Vienna in Austria over to Linux, but hit stumbling blocks in 2008.

Peter’s reasoning for this: Wienux didn’t have the proper political backing required. You need more than just a couple of technically minded councillors to make such a big project a success – you need to know that you have the support of the majority.

It all has to start somewhere, though, so maybe if we all write to our local councillors, point out the success of LiMux and ask them to consider a similar plan, there’ll be a lot more FOSS in our towns and cities in 10 years’ time…

    59 thoughts on “How Munich switched 15,000 PCs from Windows to Linux

    1. We could really do with a “share” button for Facebook! Copying and pasting URLs is *so* ’00s.

      1. First of all, it’s not “copying and pasting” but GNU/Copypaste, and secondly, Facebook is a nonfree mass-surveillance application that doesn’t respect your rights, privacy or freedom and should be avoided at all cost.

          1. Not really. David just said what’s 100% correct. Whether one likes Facebook or not doesn’t change anything about it.

      2. Actually, there are people who report their metrics show that even if you provide the share buttons people still prefer to copypaste.

        Besides that, the share buttons are often ugly unless you customize them to the design and even then it’s just noise element on the page.

      3. Aren’t you reading via a tablet where you can just touch&hold the URL to be asked where you want to share it to? Desktop browsers are *so* last year :P

      4. I couldn’t disagree more. I think the advent of share buttons is one of the worst things to happen to the internet since the beginning of eternal September. Share buttons allow people to share content who are too lazy or too stupid to copy&paste a URL. I’d rather those people just keep to consuming media instead of participating in online discourse.
        I really wish there was a way to filter out all the stuff posted via share buttons or from a mobile phone. I’m confident my Internet experience would be significantly improved.

      5. Scott Ramsay

        If you do choose to add share buttons please do it using a method I heard a while ago. You put pictures of the share buttons on your page and some javascript so when you click the picture of the button it loads the real button. That way only the people that want to click the share button ever load the share button thus keeping most people happy.

        1. That is very clever… One way to make it even better would be to use the javascript to load the real share button AND to then click the real share button for you (so you don’t have to click twice.)

    2. I would really like to know how they solved the Microsoft Word problem. We are experiencing lots of small problems sharing Word documents with partner companies. Even though in theory Open/Libre Office are compatible with Word, in practice small differences crop up, messing up document layout. This creates a lot of opposition in the organizations/companies involved.

      1. Chris Rogers

        The bigger problem would be the Excel issue. It is by far and away the most important and complexed part of Office used in any business environment.

      2. I’m not sure there is a way round this – if you’re collaborating on a word processing document where layout is important, I think you both need to be using either microsoft word (and if you are, similar versions, and on the same platform) or libreoffice. I’ve noticed that even running MS word on WINE will still lead to discrepancies.

        Does anyone know of any other way round this? I know most people say you shouldn’t be collaborating on word files where formatting is important, but it seems like lots of people do…

    3. I agree with you Ron.

      I did a lot of heavy document analysing and manipulation as part of an NLP project I was contracted to work on. We were loading up docs using libre and there was so many inconsistencies.

      Did you manage to get everyone to work with PDF files or something instead of sending doc / docx all the time?

      1. There are often similar inconsistencies between diff. versions of Word as well (particularly if you cross platforms – Windows vs. OSX – dont’ get me started on tables!) It’s just that people point out the diffs when there’s Linux involved. A big thing is to make sure you’ve got the MS-core fonts installed locally. Most changes that impact page layout come down to font metrics.

      2. (My prev. reply was actually for Ron) I agree Mike that getting people to use a more neutral standard like PDF is the way to go. I’m surpised home many resumes I get as docx: they expect me to want to edit it?

      3. linux rocks!

        You’d want to look into sharing documents via Web. Start with a wiki and move up to a content management system (Plone, Alfresco). Forget about “files” and “extensions”. Go web.

    4. It’s not news, knew it when I started using Linux for 2 years. It was quite shocking and inspiring news back then.

      I was surprised that they didn’t choose openSUSE or SLED but Debian. For now, personally I think openSUSE 13.1 or future release is much more promising than Kubuntu 14.04 LTS or its future versions…

    5. Lauri Elias

      I’ve heard that in my homeland (Estonia), there just aren’t any companies that could handle supporting thousands of Linux machines for a reasonable price. And who would found such a company if you can’t be sure you’ll have enough clients.

    6. “Surprisingly, the success of LiMux hasn’t resulted in a flood of similar projects across Europe, although we all know how slow things move in politics.”

      Politics has nothing to do with it. The fractured nature of the Linux desktop has everything to with it. As long as there isn’t a single “Linux”… with the same kernel, window manager, desktop, and office suite across the board… Linux is always going to be a hard sell to business and government. IT departments don’t want to hear how wonderful it is that you have a choice of desktops, package managers, etc. They look at “choice” and see “support headache”.

      1. Mike Saunders

        But businesses don’t have to choose the kernel, WM, desktop etc themselves. They buy a pre-configured package from the likes of Canonical or Red Hat. I agree that the choice can be overwhelming for new home desktop users, but businesses buy support for a complete solution where the choice of kernel, WM etc has already been made for them.

      2. Just my 2c, but that’s kind of making a mountain out of a mole hill. As somebody who’s been involved with a platform switch to Ubuntu with about 4,000 systems, it’s not difficult to isolate what really matters and what you really need. For example, you mention office suites and needing to be standardized across the board. That’s pretty simple. Libre Office on everything and of course Google Docs accessibility is there via the web browsers. People like to point out the incompatibilities between Libre Office and MS Office, but they conveniently leave out the issues MS Office has between different releases of MS Office. They exist, but aren’t often brought up. If you already have to deal with compatibility issues, why not save a dime and support an open source project?

        Kernel wise, we update via the regular system updates, but don’t really go to town with staying on the latest kernel release. We just keep up to date with security patches and whatnot. No reason to be version-chasing the later kernels if they offer you no needed features, especially if the default ones you’re on are packaged with security updates into the future.

        Window Manager, Desktop, pick what is the most sensible and move forward with it. We stuck with Unity since Unity is quite nice these days. With Unity being Ubuntu’s primary focus it establishes a comfort zone for future updates and whatnot. It’s been successful for us. There’s no reason to over analyze the multitudes of different desktops.

        There’s also no need for a singular Linux. All that you need is to pick a distribution that makes sense from a strategic standpoint. A distribution developed by two guys part time on the weekends doesn’t make sense. A distribution developed by an army of people, such as Canonical, Red Hat, Debian or SUSE changes the game significantly. At that point your distribution of choice is your singular focus, just like Windows would be your singular focus if you stuck with Windows. The advantage to the open source world is you have the flexibility to adjust things and switch things around if need be. As outlined above, Debian didn’t work out, and they switched. I’ve talked to some organizations who refuse to adopt Windows 8. That’s fine since Windows 7 is here and will be supported for a number of years yet. But what if Windows 9, 10, 11, etc. into the future is basically a new rendition of Windows 8? What happens then?

        I can only speak from personal experience, but having been involved in a Windows-only environment, and later on a Mac/Windows environment that ultimately adopted Ubuntu instead, it’s been far less of a transitional headache than what most people think it is. When you dismiss the existent shortcomings of option A but call out the similar shortcomings of option B, you paint a one sided picture. When all options are equally considered, the field is far more even and worthy of an actual debate. The power of choice cannot be emphasized enough. Food for thought.

      3. > Linux is always going to be a hard sell to >business and governmen

        That has to do with politics and lobbying and paying off the right govt people like they do in eastern europe and elsewhere (wife of such and such ends up working for MS related company very often).

        Politics has ALL to do with it.
        There is no money or even lobbying being done for Linux.
        THATS where the decisions are made.

        Very naive to think that these decisions are done based on technical merit.

    7. In terms of business Linux has very few advantages over windows and those are minor. One of the bigger advantages of Linux is optionality that comes with Linux’s open nature and adherence to standards. That advantage, however is not easy for people to see.

      The only reason for me to use Linux is to promote user freedom.

      1. What about security? Its nice to know all your health records and everything else arent going through the hands of the NSA.

        I’d also say that Windows is moving too quickly, nobody wants to switch to an online Office 365, or a fullscreen start menu.

        1. Are you really naive enough to think the NSA isn’t exploiting linux, or as I’ve taken to calling it NSAnux because it’s a portmanteau of NSA and linux?

          1. No you’re absolutely correct, the NSA has never used recently publicized and long standing exploits in OpenSSL or GnuTLS to perform Man in the Middle attacks, or as I’ve taken to calling them Matiddle attacks because it’s a portmanteau of man in the middle. I’m sure they’ve never bothered hording exploits for the most popular server operating system.

            1. I used to use portmanteaus all the time, then it became a problem. My wife and kids left me and I could no longer hold down a job.

              That was until I joined Portmanteau Anonymous, or as I call it ‘NoManteau’ simply because it’s a portmant… oh, sugar.

    8. Can you do a follw up please, entitled something like “…and why the main stream media didn’t report it”.

    9. The question, what was the feedback of the public employees in Munich city over this migration? Did they like working with Linux? Did they feel it was easier? Harder? More restrictive? Less restrictive? Has productivity increased/decreased after the adoption of the new OS?

      I think these are the important questions here. The migration process might be a success, but what really counts is the user feedback.

      1. “but what really counts is the user feedback”
        Remember that they went from a Win 9x style start menu to a Win 9x style start menu in KDE. Also note from the article that users complain about change regardless. My personal experience migrating a couple hundred users from Win XP to Windows 7 and from office 2003 to office 2007 was that they hated the change and for months and months they complained. Change happens, users complain, thats pretty much the rule.
        I would guess that after the first 1000 computers were switched to Linux that they knew whether it was worthwhile. Now that they are at 15,000 Linux machines, I think it’s safe to say that switching to Linux is very productive and very worthwhile.

    10. Thanks for the follow up on this. Munich had their work cut out for them and it looks like they did a marvelous job. I’ve been interested in this project since they started more than 10 years ago. I hope Munich writes a book explaining their success.
      I know that Linux is running a lot behind the scenes at many companies, and it scares Microsoft.
      In fact during a Self Audit I had the pleasure of being part of, Microsoft was very curious to know what my Linux machines were doing. Their auditing software purposly looks for Linux in addition to Microsoft products.
      For those who don’t know, a Self Audit is when MS calls you and says, “Hey, you can “volunteer” to tell us what software all of your computers are using, or we can come in with the Sherrif’s dept. and do it for you”.
      You have no choice but to let them run their scanning software inside your network. It finds everything.
      Isn’t it nice that Microsoft gets such a open door to businesses across the world like this?

      1. Love the insight – the way you describe it it sounds like you all might as well bend-over while you’re at it!

    11. Linux fan, but Windows is.......

      I have used Linux for about 2 years now, and while I think it’s neat and a great alternative, there’s just things that are only optimal with Windows – not even with wine. I also hate to say but my experience with the support system for Linux hasn’t been good. Often I get “workarounds”, and the long waits for a forum response were annoying, especially when noone can come up with a solution.
      Windows on the other hand have a direct number, chat, email, and what not for immediate support, and they really do have solutions.
      Don’t get me wrong, I’m greatful for the Linux community and the free aspect of the OS, but there are some things that are just irreplaceable. Couple other areas where Linux kinda’ falls behind are games and hardware support.
      And please no lectures on how big of a company Microsoft is – to where hardware companies cater to them, how Linux is free and things of that nature. I am aware of all that. I’m just voicing out reality…

      1. Mike Saunders

        You can’t compare paid Windows support with unpaid Linux support. You can buy Linux support so that you have a direct number, email and other things you mentioned.

    12. Lots of interesting comments… I think I read somewhere that Google give you a choice of ubuntu or OSX when you work there…

    13. Quaternion the openssl breach wasn’t specific to Linux. To the uninitiated, where would you access such Linux support mr S?

    14. This started in 2001, and wasn’t on the desktop until 2006? OUCH.

      Nice to look 10 years back on getting a solution in place, and have a few years to implement a solution. Hopefully they were able to continue an update/upgrade path over time….

      1. Mike Saunders

        Five years is not at all bad, when you consider all the steps involved. It wasn’t just “cool, let’s try Linux and chuck Debian on there”. The council had to discuss proposals, organise votes, talk to potential software suppliers etc. Then the LiMux guys had to do a lot of planning, training, staged implementations etc. And then bear in mind the general sluggishness of government work, and well, it’s not a bad achievement at all!

    15. Does anyone know a download link to the Limux OS? Is it publicly available? I really would like to try this ISO out :)

      1. Mike Saunders

        Hi Liam,

        Doesn’t look like it… I’ve done some searches for “LiMux” and “herunterladen” (download) but nothing has turned up.

        1. I am not fluent in german, but I believe from following article that LiMux on CD will be available in local libraries on 9th on september 2014:

          Maybe will it then be possible to upload and share an ISO file. But without speaking german, it won’t lead us to anywhere else than a dead-end (imho).

          1. Hi Fernando — looks like you forgot to add the link! Or it disappeared for some reason… Anyway, I could try to grab a CD from a library here in Munich.

            1. Thanks Fernando! For those who don’t speak German: because Windows XP support has ended, the Munich City Council is providing CDs of Ubuntu 12.04 (LTS) to the public so that they can upgrade to a safe platform without threat from viruses.

              Only 2,000 CDs will be available, and it’s a bit strange that they chose such an old release, but I guess it’s still being supported. It just appears to be vanilla Ubuntu however — not the customised LiMux version. Still, I’ll try to grab a copy and see what the accompanying instructions say!

    16. I guess I’ll have to give a lot of credit to the politicians. I’m pretty sure some bribes were proposed here, not just a visit and some sweet words.

    17. Hello

      For those who dont manage german, can anybody explain why there is the risk to rollback to windows? I think that I read in some post that the new mayor of the city is close to microsoft, is this true?

      1. Quick summary: the current mayor describes himself as a “Microsoft fan”, and says he was instrumental in getting the company to relocate to central Munich. He says he’s not happy with Linux, and wants to investigate the possibility of switching back. The city council has said there are no plans to change, and the mayor’s statements are “irrelevant personal opinions”. So it’s not a big story (yet), just one guy at the top grumbling.


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