If you still depend on a few Windows programs, or you want to help newbies make the switch to Linux, Wine is mightily useful.
Question: what do you call a program that runs software designed for a different platform? An emulator, right? Well, the name Wine comes from “Wine Is Not an Emulator” – which is one of those recursive acronyms that are so loved in the FOSS world. But given that Wine lets you run Windows software on your Linux installation, why is it not an emulator? Essentially, Wine acts as a compatibility layer that translates Windows system calls to their Linux equivalents, and it doesn’t actually emulate a complete Windows PC, with its CPU, graphics card and so forth.
Anyway, with that naming confusion out of the way, let’s focus on the software itself. Wine is a godsend for many Linux users who’ve made the transition from Windows, but still need to run the occasional program from the latter operating system. It’s completely free software – you don’t need a licence from Microsoft to use it – and it’s capable of running a wide range of programs. Not all of them, mind you, and very recent software can have problems. But some major applications like Microsoft Office 2010 work well enough for daily use.
So if you’re still dual-booting between Linux and Windows, and would rather spend more time in the former, here we’ll show you how to use Wine and (hopefully) run your favourite Windows apps without rebooting. Or if you’re a full-time Linux user and don’t give a hoot about Windows, you can still use this guide when you’re helping others make the transition to Linux, set up Wine for them and demonstrate the awesome power of free software.
Here’s our first app runing on Wine – Notepad++. It’s a simple program and therefore has few compatibility issues with Wine.
Wine is included in almost every major distro’s repositories, so find it in your package manager or use your usual command-line tools to install it (eg sudo apt-get install wine on Ubuntu-based distros). We’re using Arch Linux for this tutorial – but the commands are the same across other distros. If you want the latest and greatest version and are happy compiling software from its source code, you can get it from www.winehq.org. After you’ve got it installed, find a simple, standalone Windows program to test; in our case we’re going to use the rather cool Notepad++ text editor available from http://notepad-plus-plus.org. This program exists as a single .exe file and doesn’t have a ton of complicated dependencies, so it’s the perfect type of program to kick tires of a new Wine installation.
Go to the Downloads section, then grab the “minimalist package” and save it to your home directory. This is in 7-zip format, so install the tool to extract that in your distro’s package manager (it should be provided in the package p7zip). Then open a terminal and enter:
7z x -onpp npp.6.6.9.bin.minimalist.7z
Here we’re extracting the download into a new npp directory – if there’s a newer version of Notepad++ by the time you read this, change the version number accordingly. We then switch into the directory, and if you enter ls, you’ll see that there’s a file there called notepad++.exe. Let’s run it!
You may be prompted to install Mono and Gecko packages; these aren’t important for now, so just click Cancel in the dialog boxes that appear. And after a few moments, you’ll see Notepad++, a Windows program, in all its glory on your Linux desktop. Not bad – it’s as simple as that!
Well, for small programs it’s simple; we’ll get to the more complicated setups later. For now, try exploring the program. As mentioned, Wine translates every Windows system and library call that the program makes into a Linux equivalent. So if you save a file from Notepad++, the program calls Windows’ file saving routine, Wine intercepts it, and forwards on the request to the Linux equivalent. When Notepad++ wants to draw something on the screen, it makes requests to Windows libraries – and Wine has its own versions of these, which then talk to the X server on Linux. It’s very cool technology.
Adobe has dropped support for Reader on Linux, but thanks to Wine, you can get some Windows versions running.
Two worlds collide
Of course, Wine can’t magically make some of the differences between Linux and Windows disappear. Go to File > Open in Notepad++, for instance, and select My Computer from the “Look in” list. You’ll see C:, D: and Z: drives – but they make no sense in the Linux world. Well, Wine maps them to different locations in your filesystem. The Z: drive is mapped to the root directory (/), which is the base of everything in a Linux/Unix system. So you can use that drive to go to your home directory in /home and access your personal files – or use the My Documents shortcut.
But where does C: point to? If you click into it, you’ll see some familiar folders from a Windows installation: Program files, windows and so forth. These were created when you first ran Wine, so let’s explore them in more depth. They’re located in .wine/drive_c in your home directory, so close Notepad++ and switch into that directory like so:
Enter ls and you’ll see those folders again. Switch into the windows directory with cd windows and run ls again – this time, you’ll notice some common tools like Regedit. Basically, Wine has created a very minimal Windows installation in your home directory, comprised of fully open source software, of course. So you can run the included tools like so:
(Note that you can omit the .exe.) This looks just like the real Windows registry editor, but go to Help > About and you’ll see that it’s a tool written by the Wine developers. Back in the terminal, if you head into the windows/system32 directory (and syswow64 on 64-bit installations), you’ll see a bunch of DLLs. These are Wine’s own implementations of core Windows libraries – and again, they’re fully open source.
Now, they’re not always as feature-complete as the original Windows versions, so in some cases you can copy DLLs from a real Windows installation into this directory, to improve compatibility with certain programs. The only ones you must never overwrite are kernel32.dll, gdi32.dll, user32.dll, and ntdll.dll – you can only use the Wine versions of these.
As an aside, the ReactOS project (www.reactos.org), which aims to create an open source Windows-compatible operating system, uses many Wine DLLs. The underlying structure of ReactOS is very different to Linux and Unix, as it aims to be compatible with Windows drives as well as software, but there’s a decent amount of code-flow between ReactOS and Wine. We’ve been following ReactOS for many years and it’s making slow but steady progress – what Microsoft’s lawyers think about it, though, remains to be seen…
It’s important to note that Wine programs can access your Linux system like any other app. They’re not sandboxed or restricted. Of course, the inbuilt security mechanisms of Unix and Linux should stop a malicious app from completely hosing your system, but if you want to be ultra secure, use Wine on Linux inside a virtual machine!
Got a program that’s supplied as an .msi file? You can install these using the msiexec tool along with the /i flag – for instance, msiexec /i filename.msi. This tool is provided as part of a standard Wine installation.
If you’re looking for improved compatibility, easier installation and technical support, CrossOver (www.codeweavers.com) is worth a look. This is a commercial version of Wine with various extras, and is especially useful if you want to run Microsoft Office (XP to 2010), Adobe Photoshop and several triple-A games like World of Warcraft. CrossOver includes a tool called CrossTie, which lets you install applications straight from the web with just a couple of clicks, and it also uses a bottles system to stop different configurations from overwriting one another. It also has some tweaks to integrate more smoothly with KDE and Gnome.
Pricing starts from €32; this gets you one month of email support and upgrades (when new versions are released). For €48 you get the whole package, which includes one year of email support and upgrades, along with a “phone support incident” – ie you can speak to one of the devs on the phone if you’re having serious trouble. (Subsequent calls cost €16.95 each.) CrossOver employs Wine developers and contributes code back to the main tree, so if you find Wine really useful and want to support its development financially, buying CrossOver is a good idea. Alternatively, you can donate directly at www.winehq.org/donate.
Installing Software and Custom Setups
So far, we’ve just tested a simple standalone .exe program. But what if you want to install something more complicated, like a program that extracts and installs its own files? Let’s try Adobe Reader, given that it’s no longer supported on Linux. The first thing to do before installing any program is to check its compatibility ratings, so in this case we go to
https://appdb.winehq.org and enter “Adobe Reader” in the search box in the top-right. When the results come up, we click on the “WineHQ – Adobe Reader” link.
Here we can see that different versions of the program have different ratings: gold means that a program works almost flawlessly, whereas silver and bronze mean that the program is usable, albeit with some glitches or other issues. (These compatibility ratings are provided by the community, and some programs have only been tested with older Wine releases, so it’s possible that compatibility has improved in the meantime.)
Adobe Reader 9.x is rated as silver, so click it and then, on the following page, the first “Free Download” link on the left. Save the AdbeRdr90_en_US.exe file to your home directory, fire up a terminal, and enter:
This isn’t the program itself, but rather its installer – so follow the prompts, and don’t worry if the installer gets confused and crashes right at the end. (This is a common occurrence in Wine, when
installers don’t quite understand that they’re not running in an original Windows environment, but usually it’s not a problem.)
Now, like in regular Windows, Adobe Reader has been installed in a Program Files directory. In this case, you’ll find it in ~/.wine/drive_c/Program Files (x86)/Adobe/Reader 9.0/Reader. If you cd into that directory and enter ls, you’ll see AcroRd32.exe – that’s the program you want to run with Wine. So give it a go, and try opening some PDFs – by and large, it does its job without major bugs. You can now create a launcher on your desktop that runs the program with this command (note the use of quote marks to get round spaces in directory names):
wine ~/.wine/drive_c/”Program Files (x86)”/Adobe/”Reader 9.0”/Reader/AcroRd32.exe
Another useful launcher to create is “wine explorer”, which starts up a file manager, so you can then browse into Program Files (x86) yourself and launch programs by double-clicking on them.
As you’d expect, Wine is a hugely configurable piece of software, but fortunately there’s a fairly good GUI tool that lets you tweak settings without fiddling around inside config files. Enter winecfg and a small Windows utility pops up with various tabs. The most important of these is Applications: here you can select .exe files in your Wine installation, and then choose the Windows version that Wine should emulate for them. So if you know that a certain program works best in Windows XP, or Windows 7, you can select it at the bottom. In general, Wine’s compatibility is more complete when it comes to older Windows versions.
Another useful tab here is Libraries. Here you can choose whether Wine should override its inbuilt libraries with native ones, as mentioned earlier. Under the Graphics tab you can also customise the screen resolution, which helps if certain programs are being displayed incorrectly.
Things can get complicated when you’ve customised your Wine installation for one particular program, and it’s running beautifully, but then you install another program that needs different settings, library overrides, and so forth. It’s a colossal pain to keep switching options manually, but thankfully, Wine has a solution for this called prefixes (aka Wine bottles). This lets you create and maintain separate Wine installations for your programs – albeit with a bit of extra disk space usage.
The key to this is the WINEPREFIX environment variable. Say you want to install program fooapp.exe into a new Wine installation, and not .wine in your home directory. You would run this command:
env WINEPREFIX=~/.wine_fooapp wine fooapp.exe
A new Wine installation, with fresh settings and libraries, will be created in .wine_fooapp in your home directory. Once the app is installed, you can run its executable as usual, but make sure to keep the env WINEPREFIX=~/.wine_fooapp part otherwise it all gets messy. Essentially, you can make as many Wine prefixes as you like (at the cost of 35MB each time), but always make sure you’re pointing WINEPREFIX to the appropriate place, otherwise one installation can overwrite settings from another.
To run winecfg for a particular prefix, you also need to specify the environment variable:
env WINEPREFIX=~/.wine_fooapp winecfg
If you want to completely remove a program and its prefix, just remove the directory.
Another useful environment variable is WINEARCH. If you’re running a 64-bit distro, Wine will start in 64-bit mode by default; if this leads to problems with your programs, you can change this by using env WINEARCH=win32 before your commands.
Wine Explorer is a simple file manager that you can use to browse files.
Tricks up the sleeve
Finally, we want to give a mention to Winetricks (www.winetricks.org), a very handy little script that assists you in installing various programs and games. Many distros include it in their package repositories – if you can’t find it, just grab it from the website (the Installing page explains how to do it step-by-step). You’ll also need some kind of utility for displaying dialog boxes, such as Zenity or kdialog from KDE.
When you run Winetricks, you’ll be prompted to install an application, benchmark or game. Try installing an app: you’ll see that many of them can be downloaded automatically (check the Media column), but in some cases, such as with Microsoft Office, you’ll need the original CD or DVD. As a test, try installing the AbiWord word processor: Winetricks will download the setup.exe file and run it in Wine.
After the installation, Winetricks will return to its original menu, but you’ll see a new item: “Select AbiWord”. Click on this and then OK, and another menu will appear so that you can configure the installation. You can access the usual winecfg tool in this way, or also fine-tune options via the Change settings item. Note the titlebar here – Winetricks has installed AbiWord into its own prefix, in ~/.local/share/wineprefixes/abiword/. So if you cd into that directory in a terminal, you’ll see the usual drive_c/Program Files (x86) subdirectory underneath it, and then AbiWord under that. (The launcher, AbiWord.exe, is inside the bin directory.)
Winetricks also provides access to a large list of games and demos, many of which are great for testing the performance of Wine. Just remember that they can swallow up your disk space quickly, so it’s a good idea to remove the prefixes when you’re done with them!
The future of Wine
Wine’s development dates back to the mid-90s, so it’s one of the longest-running projects in the Free Software world. After two decades of development, though, why are there still compatibility problems with so many programs? Well, part of the problem is that Windows is a moving target. When Wine started, its goal was to provide compatibility with Win32 – in other words, the APIs used on Windows 95, 98 and NT. But since then, we’ve seen many more releases of Windows, and Wine developers keep trying to chase the latest APIs.
Some would argue that the Wine team should set a very specific goal: compatibility with Windows XP, for instance, and forget about Vista, 7 and 8. This could make sense in positioning Wine as a solution for legacy applications, but other users and developers want to use Wine to play the latest games and run recent versions of Office. As most Wine developers are hacking on the code out of a labour of love, nobody can force them to limit the compatibility to a specific Windows release.
And then, trying to be compatible with Windows APIs is an adventure in itself. Many APIs are undocumented or don’t behave as expected, so it’s not just about following a spec like POSIX. After all, it’s in Microsoft’s interests that a compatible OS from a third party isn’t developed. Sure, the Redmond giant has been more friendly with the FOSS community recently, but we don’t expect it to suddenly get behind the Wine project or open up reams of specifications to help its development.
If you’ve got some really old programs that you’d like to get running again, from the days when MS-DOS ruled the (business) world, you’re also in luck. FOSS platforms have had great DOS compatibility for many years thanks to DOSEMU, but that program hasn’t seen many updates recently, and can be fiddly to set up. A better alternative can be found in DOSBox – and it’s available in all major distro’s repositories.
Once you have it installed, you just need to point it at a directory containing your DOS program(s). In this example we’ve got Frontier Elite II in a directory called frontier, so we just run:
When DOSBox starts, it maps its emulated C: drive to the directory you specified. So if you enter DIR now, you’ll see the files inside the frontier directory – including frontier.bat, which you can use to run it. DOSBox will often grab the mouse cursor for itself, so to free it, press Ctrl+F10 at the same time.
To configure DOSBox, run it on its own (without a directory) and then enter config -wc dosbox.conf in the emulated DOS session. Type exit to leave, and you’ll see dosbox.conf in your current directory. You can now edit this to tweak settings, such as full-screen mode, mouse sensitivity, and how quickly it should run (look at the cycles option). If you need any help, you’ll find plenty of it on the wiki at www.dosbox.com/wiki.