Text-mode user interfaces do not belong to museums yet – find out why and craft one yourself.
Today, one can hardly imagine the PC without a graphical desktop. Even the smallest computers such as the Raspberry Pi have an HDMI port and a CPU powerful enough for a graphical environment. Text (or console) user interfaces (TUI) may feel like a weird artefact from ye olden days that fit a museum stand better than your monitor. Sure, you are unlikely to use a terminal to chat on Facebook (although you can surf the web with the Links browser if you wish), or write a report (Latex can award you with state-of-the-art documents). Nevertheless, console-based programs come in handy where you don’t have graphics configured (in installers or setup tools) or work on slow connections (say, you SSH into your Raspberry Pi-based sensor somewhere in countryside available over a 2.75G cellular network only). Text interfaces are also often preferable for specialised applications, like point-of-sale terminals.
There are TUI eqiuvalents for many graphical programs, including browsers.
This tutorial is about making console interfaces in Python with the Urwid library. If you’ve ever done any programming with Qt, GTK or any other toolkit, you will find many concepts similar, but not the same. That’s because Urwid is, strictly speaking, not a widget toolkit. It’s a widget construction toolkit, and this subtle difference sometimes matters. It provides the elements of a user interface that you’d expect, like buttons or text input boxes. But many advanced widgets, say dialogs or drop-down menus, are missing (you do them yourself, and we’ll show you how in a minute). There is also no straightforward way to set the “tab order” (ie how the focus moves with Tab key). This doesn’t mean that Urwid is limited or primitive – it’s a full-fledged library with mouse support, third-party IO loop integration and other services that you might expect from a mature toolkit – but it’s a peculiarity to keep in mind when you program with it.
One task that a widget toolkit performs is calculating positions and screen space for widgets. This is not as simple as it may sound, and there’s no one-size-fits-all recipe either. Some older libraries tended to avoid this job altogether, so if a label was too long to display, it was simply cut off.
Urwid’s approach is to introduce three types of widgets. The first one, “box”, takes as much space as its container allocates; a top-level widget in Urwid application is always a box one. Flow widgets are given a number of columns to occupy, and are responsible for calculating the number of screen rows they need (as we are working in text mode, units are characters, and widget size is measured in rows and columns, not pixels). Fixed widgets are, er, fixed: they always occupy the same screen space regardless what is available, and they decide on their size themselves. A typical example of a flow widget is Text; common boxed widget is SolidFill, which fills an area with the given character and is useful for backgrounds. Fixed widgets are rare, and we won’t discuss them.
There are also “decoration widgets” that wrap other widgets and alter their appearance or behaviour. In this way, flow widgets can be made boxed (for instance, with Filler, which fills rows left unused by its child) or vice versa (see BoxAdapter). All of these types are visually summarised in the “Included Widgets” section of the Urwid manual (http://urwid.org/manual).
Sometimes you misuse widgets and put a box one where a flow widget is expected, or whatever. Urwid is not very friendly in this case, and all you get is a cryptic ValueError exception:
... Few other calls here ...
File “/path/to/urwid/widget.py”, line 1004, in render
(maxcol,) = size
ValueError: too many values to unpack
It originates from the way widgets are rendered. You don’t need to dig into details of this backtrace, just remember that if you see it, you’ve probably missed a decoration widget.
The Urwid manual has a neat refresher for widget types and more.
Hello, Urwid world!
It’s time to write some code. Like many other (if not all) UI frameworks, Urwid is built around the main loop, represented by the MainLoop class. This loop dispatches events such as key presses or mouse clicks to the widget hierarchy rooted at the topmost box widget, passed as the first argument to the MainLoop constructor (and available later as a ‘widget’ attribute on the main loop object). In this way, a simplest Urwid program might look like this:
from urwid import MainLoop, SolidFill
mainloop = MainLoop(SolidFill(‘#’))
This will fill the screen with hashmarks. The run() method is where the main loop starts. To terminate it, raise the ExitMainLoop exception:
mainloop = MainLoop(SolidFill(‘#’),
unhandled_input callback is executed for any event that is not handled by the topmost widget (or its descendants). Since SolidFill() doesn’t respond to keypresses, any key will stop the program. You can check this yourself – just make sure you have installed Urwid with your package manager (it’s called python-urwid or similar).
Add some colour
Black and white text is boring. Urwid can paint colours, but it needs a palette first:
single_color = [(‘basic’, ‘yellow’, ‘dark blue’)]
mainloop = MainLoop(AttrMap(SolidFill(‘#’),
Here, the palette contains a single colour: yellow text on a blue background. You can define a palette with as many colours as you want, but keep in mind that not all colours (and attributes) are supported by all terminals. If you don’t target a specific environment, it is better to stick to “safe” colours, as defined in the “Display Attributes” section of the Urwid manual.
The palette = keyword argument installs the palette for your application, but the AttrMap decoration widget is where the colour is actually applied. ‘basic’ serves as an identifier, and can be anything you want.
Let’s open windows
Programs usually interface with users via some dialog windows. In text mode, they look like framed rectangular areas, so let’s create one. To make things more interesting, we’ll also include a few basic widgets. A blue background can be created with SolidFill(‘ ‘) the usual way (let’s creatively call this widget ‘background’). To create a framed area, we can use the LineBox() decoration widget (don’t forget to import widgets from the urwid package as they appear in the text):
window = LineBox(interior)
By default, LineBox draws a single line around the supplied widget; however, you can configure every aspect of the frame using Unicode box drawing characters (http://unicode-table.com/en/#box-drawing). Forget about the ‘interior’ widget for now – we’ll get to it shortly. But for now, how do we put the dialog over the background? Urwid provides the Overlay() widget for that:
topw = Overlay(window, background,
‘center’, 30, ‘middle’, 10)
main_loop = MainLoop(topw,
This lays out a 30×10 window centred on the background and starts the main loop. Note that we’ve used Overlay as the topmost widget. Should we need to change the view, the main_loop.widget is to be set to something different.
Now, back to the ‘interior’. We want some labels (Text), an input (Edit), and a push button (Button) stacked vertically one over another. The way to do it in Urwid is to use a Pile container:
caption = Text((‘caption’, ‘Enter some words:’),
input = Edit(multiline=False)
# Will be set from the code
scratchpad = Text(‘’)
button = Button(‘Push me’)
button_wrap = Padding(AttrMap(button,
interior = Filler(Pile()
Here, we see two new ways to apply attributes (colours). The Text widget can accept a markup (a tuple or a list of tuples), and AttrMap can assign different attributes to focused and unfocused widgets. As we create widgets, we store them in variables for further reference.
If you try to run this code now, you’ll see it fails with the ValueError we’ve already discussed. This is because the Pile widget’s type is determined by its children, and Text, Edit and Button are flow widgets. LineBox works the same way, so finally ‘window’ is a flow widget in our program. However, the way we use Overlay implies that the top widget is a box one (since we allocated both the width and height for it ourselves), and this is the problem. We need to wrap ‘interior’ into something to make it boxed. The natural choice is Filler: we’ll let flowed interior widget decide how many rows it needs, and Filler will take the rest. By default, Filler centres its contents vertically, and this is also what we want:
interior = Filler(Pile([...]))
Now the program runs; however, the button is wider than needed. That’s because Pile makes all children equal width, so the button needs some padding:
button_wrap = Padding(AttrMap(...),
By default, Padding makes contents left-aligned, so we explicitly tell it we need them centred. Width can be an integer (the exact number of columns for the contents), ‘pack’ (try to find optimal width, which may not work out), or (‘relative’, percentage) if you want the contents to scale with the container.
Now, the interface looks as needed, however, it still does nothing. Let’s change the scratchpad’s contents when the button is clicked (either with the Enter key or with the mouse):
from urwid import connect_signal
def button_clicked(button, user_data):
input, scratchpad = user_data
scratchpad.set_text(‘You entered: %s’ %
connect_signal(button, ‘click’, button_clicked,
We pass references to input and scratchpad in user_data; in real-world code they will likely be some object’s attributes. If you no longer want the button to work, you can disconnect the signal with the disconnect_signal() function. For Button, you can achieve the same results with the on_press= and user_data= constructor arguments, however the approach we just saw works for any event and widget (for example, Edit emits a ‘change’ signal when the text is changed).
Our simple program is now fully functional, except that there’s no way to exit from it. We can reuse the unhandled_input trick, but this time, let’s exit only if the user presses the F10 key:
if key == ‘f10’:
If you want to, you can also add another button to close the application.
Our first Urwid program: basic, but fully functional.
A secret weapon
As we’ve already learned, Urwid is missing many advanced widgets. However, it includes one very powerful one: ListBox. You might imagine a box with a few lines of text and a highlighting bar, but Urwid’s ListBox is different (although it can look and behave this way as well). It’s a scrollable list (or even tree) of arbitrary widgets that’s generated dynamically, and it can serve various purposes, including creating menus, sequence editors and almost anything else (except coffee makers, you know).
ListBox is a bit like Pile in that it takes a list of widgets and stacks them vertically. However, there are many discrepancies, and they are quite important. First, passing ListBox a list of widgets is the most simple, limited and somewhat discouraged way to set its contents. Second, ListBox is always a box widget that contains flow widgets; in other words, it decides what part of the contents will be shown at given time. To make this decision, ListBox manages focus: if, for instance, you press the Down key, the focus will be shifted to the next child, and its contents will be scrolled accordingly.
While ListBox is a real Swiss Army knife, we’ll use it to create a simple menu. Let’s start with the MenuItem class. A simple menu item is just a text label that’s highlighted when it has focus and responds in some way to activation (like pressing the Enter key). This means the Text widget is a perfect base class for it. We need to register a signal (let’s call it ‘activate’), intercept the Enter key and make the widget selectable (that’s a basic property of all widgets in Urwid; only selectable widgets receive focus from the ListBox container).
from urwid import register_signal, emit_signal
def __init__(self, caption):
def keypress(self, size, key):
if key == ‘enter’:
Signals are registered per-class with register_signal() and emitted with emit_signal() later. The keypress() method is defined in the base Widget class and overridden by all widgets that want to respond to the keyboard (its size is the current widget’s size). If the widget successfully handled the key it returns none, or key otherwise. There is a similar mouse_event() method, but we won’t discuss it here.
Next, we need to pack MenuItem objects into ListBox. To make current focus visible, we’ll use an AttrMap the same way we did it for the button earlier:
contents = 
for caption in [‘Item 1’, ‘Item 2’, ‘Item 3’]:
item = MenuItem(caption)
connect_signal(item, ‘activate’, exit_app)
interior = ListBox(SimpleFocusListWalker(contents))
This assumes that the overall program layout is the same as in the previous example; however, since ListBox is box widget, there is no need to wrap ‘interior’ with Filler. We connect the ‘activate’ signal to the exit_app() function that simply terminates the program.
The SimpleFocusListWorker class is a basic adapter to make ListBox work on top of a static widget list. It derives from ListWalker, and you can use its other subclasses here, including the ones you create yourself, as well. The primary reason to do this is to make the contents of ListBox dynamic, for example, read lines from a file only when the user scrolls down to them. This is where ListBox comes to its full powers.
ListBox is a natural choice for, er, a list box widget.
Where to go next?
That’s basically all for the introduction. There are some concepts, like text layout or canvas cache, that we haven’t discussed, and there are others we’ve touched only briefly. However what you’ve learned today will hopefully help you to master more advanced concepts quickly. Should you need to create a sophisticated Urwid UI, bundled examples and existing applications (http://excess.org/urwid/wiki/ApplicationList) are great resources for Urwid programming ideas and techniques. Just don’t forget to post your Urwid toolbox to some code hosting site for community’s benefit, too!